Are you experiencing low engine compression issues? Low compression in engines is often an indication that the engine is old or worn. However, it can happen due to other reasons, too.
Engine compression relates to how much pressure is generated by the engine within the cylinders while it’s on. In ensuring optimal power and efficiency, the engine’s pressure output is crucial.
When encountering low engine compression, performance issues become evident, underscoring the urgency of immediate resolution. If you notice any signs of low compression, you may worry. But, if you act promptly to address these concerns, you can restore peak performance to your engine.
Today, we have a guide to help you discover some possible cause of low compression in engines, and we will uncover a range of effective solutions to address and fix low engine compression.
Whether you’re a seasoned mechanic or a DIY enthusiast, our expert advice and troubleshooting tips will help you identify the root causes of low compression and provide you with the know-how to carry out the necessary repairs.
Say goodbye to low compression woes and hello to a smoothly running engine.
Possible Causes Of Low Compression In Engines
Damaged Or Worn Piston Rings
The overheating of a car engine can result in warping and damage to the piston rings. Subsequently, a compromised seal allows gasses to escape, leading to low compression. With proper care, piston rings can last the lifetime of the engine, but when wear or damage occurs, it is essential to address the issue promptly to restore optimal compression.
Damaged Or Worn Pistons
Beyond the piston rings, there exists the potential risk of complications involving the pistons themselves. Typically crafted from aluminum alloy, pistons are designed to withstand the regular demands of engine combustion. However, overheating can lead to warping of the pistons.
In certain instances, extreme heat can even result in the formation of holes that burn through the piston. Regrettably, such holes serve as pathways for gas leakage, resulting in low compression within the engine.
Valves or Valve Seats Are Leaking
Situated atop the cylinder, valves play a vital role in engine operation. Comprising intake and exhaust valves, they facilitate the flow of fuel, air, and gasses during the combustion process. However, excessive heat can lead to valve damage, resulting in compression leaks.
Over time, the valve seats may also wear down, further contributing to the escape of gasses. This prevalent issue gives rise to low engine compression, necessitating timely attention and resolution.
Hydraulic Lifters Are Faulty
Another common cause of low compression in engines is faulty hydraulic lifters. With a cylindrical shape, these lifters are found between the camshaft and the valves. These days, hydraulic lifters can be self-adjusted, with enough play between the lifter and the camshaft due to the oil used to control movement.
When an engine has racked up many miles, certain parts wear out, such as the lifters. If this happens, they will not be able to withstand a sufficient amount of oil pressure.
This can lead to the lifters compressing as the camshaft opens and not opening as they should. The result? Low or no compression in the engine.
Other Possible Causes
Above are the four main causes of low compression on engines, but some other reasons could be:
- A worn or damaged head gasket
- Incorrect camshaft timing
- Damaged or cracked cylinder walls
Whatever the cause, you’ll want to fix low compression in your engine, so let’s take a look at how to do so.
Fixing Low Compression In Your Engine – How To Guide
The good news is that you don’t have to be a pro mechanic to tackle low engine compression. That being said, you will need some specialized tools and a little bit of know-how and guidance (that’s why we’re here).
Let’s take a look at some steps to take to fix low compression problems.
1. Inspect Camshaft Timing
If all the cylinders have low compression, your first step should be to check the timing belt or chain for any signs of wear or damage. If so, replace it. But, if not, you should continue inspecting the camshaft timing.
2. Add Oil Into The Low Compression Cylinder
When one cylinder has low compression, try putting some oil into it and then test it again. If you notice the pressure becomes higher, you have identified the issue.
In this case, it’s like the engine misfiring, which you will need to see a mechanic. It could also be a sign that the piston rings are not sealing as they should and need to be repaired.
3. Look For Blow-By
This step requires great care, as engine oil can be extremely hot and hazardous. Start by opening the oil cap carefully when the engine is on.
If overpressure is felt, and you see smoke, compression is likely leaking through the engine’s pistons into the crankcase. This means you may have to get a crack repaired. Otherwise, the piston or rings may need replacing.
4. Lead Down Test Time
A good investment is a leak-down tester. This allows you to check where the compression is leaking from and into. Simply connect the pressure gauge where the spark plug is located, letting the positive pressure be read.
When putting the pressure into the cylinder, ensure the valves are closed. Listen out for any leaking sounds emanating from the crank house or valves.
The above steps are not straightforward. For the majority of home mechanics, it is advised you contact a professional mechanic to help with compression issues.
Look for a qualified mechanic in your local area, and they can find and fix the problem much quicker than most novices could. Also, they will have all the equipment required to do the job properly and safely.